The Histological Changes in Renal Glomeruli, Proximal and Distal Convoluted Tubules of Adult Albino Rats due to Doxorubicin
Objective: The aim of study is to determine the nephrotoxicity induced by Doxorubicin (DXR) in adult albino rats using histopathological technique. Oxidative stress is the main factor in DXR induced nephrotoxicity. Study Design: Laboratories based randomized control experimental trials. Settings: Post Graduate Medical Institute (PGMI) Animal House Experimental Research Laboratory Lahore. Duration: One year from February 2019 to February 2020. Methods: 20 albino rats were divided into two groups A&B, comprising 10 rats each. A was control group. Group B received DXR 1.2 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally twice a week for 21 days. Animals sacrificed after 21days. Gross (weight of rats, weight of both right and left kidneys) and histological parameters (Quantitative; diameter of renal corpuscle, PCT, DCT Qualitative; vacuolization within PCT and DCT, glomerular and stromal vascular congestion, inflammatory cells infiltration) were observed. Results: Chemotherapy has been established as remarkably effective at treating many cancers in the modern cancer treatments. This treatment kills healthy cells as well as cancerous cells. DXR due to its oxidative property exerts toxic side effects on kidney which were analyzed by present study. The renal sections of rats treated with DXR for 21 days (Fig.2) had shown significant atrophic changes, including many shrunken renal corpuscles and degenerated renal tubules (PCT & DCT) with increased diameter. Stroma of the kidney appeared vacuolated with focal hemorrhages, inflammatory cells infiltrate and congested blood vessels. DXR lead to an imbalance between antioxidant and free oxygen radicals, which causes with protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation (LPO) resulting in tissue damage8. Conclusion: Gross change was decrease in the body weight and paired kidney weights which was statistically significant. Histopathological changes were glomerular and tubular diameter, degenerative changes, vacuolization within cells of PCT and DCT, inflammatory cell infiltration in stroma, glomerular and interstitial congestion. DXR leads to free radical formation, ion-dependent oxidative damage of biological macromolecules, protein oxidation and membrane LPO.