Prevalence of Keratopathy in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis
Background: Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is a chronic allergic eye disease that primarily affects young individuals and can lead to significant discomfort and visual impairment. Keratopathy, in the context of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), refers to corneal changes and complications that can occur as a result of this chronic allergic eye condition. VKC primarily affects the conjunctiva and the cornea, and keratopathy is a significant concern due to its potential to cause visual impairment. Objective: To determine the frequency of keratopathy in vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Settings: Sindh Institute of Ophthalmology and visual sciences at LUMHS Eye Hospital Hyderabad Pakistan. Duration: From February 16, to August 15, 2019. Methods: All the patients with VKC, aged 5-15 years and both genders were included. History was taken from patient or parent about presenting complains and duration of disease. Clinical (slit lamp) examination was performed to look for corneal lesions. Both eyes of each patient were examined for corneal involvement, including SPEE (positive Florescence staining), corneal epithelial defects, corneal shield ulcer and corneal subepithelial scars. Florescence staining with blue filter was used where indicated. All the data was entered in the proforma and analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results: Total 232 patients were studied, most of the patients 84.1%, belonged to age group of 5-10 years, while 15.9% presented with age range of 11-15 years. Males were most common 78.0%. Frequency of keratopathy was 22.0%. Most of the cases 51.3%, had >1 years duration. According to type of keratopathy, superior punctate epithelial erosions was most common type among 35.3% patients out of 51, scarring was among 24.5% patients, shield ulcer was among 9.8% patients and macro erosion was in 2 patients. No significant impact was found of age on Prevalence of keratopathy, (p-0.419). Male gender, duration of VKC and bilateral eyes were significantly associated with Prevalence of keratopathy, (p-0.001). Conclusion: It was concluded that frequency of keratopathy in vernal keratoconjunctivitis is 22.0%.