Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Active Tuberculosis at a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background: The immune system's adaptive and innate responses can both be modified by vitamin D's powerful immunomodulatory effects. In recent years, vitamin D deficiency in tuberculosis patients has been reported in the medical literature. Objective: To determine the association between Vitamin D deficiency and active pulmonary tuberculosis. Study Design: It was a case control study. Settings: Research was carried out at PNS Hafeez, Islamabad. Duration: Duration of study was 6 months from August 2020 to January 2021. Methods: Sixty-six male and female patients aged 18 to 55 who had been diagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis were paired with sixty-six healthy controls. Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed when the serum level was found to be less than 25 ng/ml. Vitamin D insufficiency prevalence was used as the outcome variable for this analysis. Each participant gave their informed consent in writing. Results: Patients' ages ranged from 18 to 55, with a mean age of 34.779.98. Fifty-seven men (43.2%) and seventy-five women (56.6%) made up the patient population. Patients' body mass index (BMI) was anything from 18.5 to 28.9, with a mean of 23.12 2.82. As many as 49 (37.1%) patients were heavy smokers. Clinically active tuberculosis patients had a substantially lower serum vitamin D level than controls (19.566.64 vs. 23.726.42 ng/ml; p0.001). Deficits in vitamin D were more common in cases than in controls (72.7 vs. 39.4 %; p0.001; OR=4.10; 95% CI=1.97-8.54). Conclusion: A lower mean serum vitamin D level and a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency were found to be associated with active pulmonary tuberculosis, with an (OR) odds ratio of 4.1 supporting routine screening of these patients for vitamin D status to prompt identify and, consequently, monitor patients with vitamin D deficiency in subsequent clinical practice.