A Novel Complementary Alternative Medicine: An In-Vitro Evaluation of Efficacy of Nigella sativa Extract as an Antibacterial Agent against Porphyromonas gingivalis
Introduction: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease which causes progressive destruction of the periodontium resulting in pocket formation, gingival recession and tooth loss. The overwhelming cost of periodontal treatment, unpleasant side effects of antibiotics, emergence of new bacterial strains and their resistance call for an alternative treatment modality which can address all these issues. Nigella sativa is an annual herbaceous plant. It is commonly known as black seed which has been used for more than 2000 years as a natural remedy. Numerous studies have confirmed the biological functions of black seed and demonstrated its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal and anticancer activity. Objective: To determine the frequency of Porphyromonas gingivalis in chronic periodontitis patients and evaluate the efficacy of black seed extract against it. Methodology: Porphyromonas gingivalis was isolated from subgingival plaque samples and identified up to species level. Ethanolic extract of black seed was screened for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion and agar dilution method. A reference strain of Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 was used as quality control. Results: All the tested strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis were sensitive to ethanolic extract of black seed at concentrations 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The extract had an MIC range of 2-4mg/ml. Conclusion: These results indicate that ethanolic extract of black seed has potent antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis. So black seed extract can be used in periodontal therapy as an adjuvant to scaling.