Frequency of Aplastic Anemia in Children (1-15 years) with New-Onset Pancytopenia
Background: Pancytopenia is a medical disorder in which the usual quantities of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are depleted. This condition can arise from various factors, including diminished production of hematopoietic cells, ineffective hematopoiesis, or the destruction of these cells in the peripheral blood. Objective: To determine the frequency of aplastic anemia in children (1-15 years) with new-onset pancytopenia presenting at Children Hospital Lahore. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Settings: Department of Pediatric Medicine, Children Hospital, Lahore Pakistan. Duration: From August 2022 January 2023. Methods: This research included 250 children, covering both genders, with ages ranging from 1 month to 15 years old. These children had all been diagnosed with pancytopenia within the past month. The primary focus of the study was to determine the prevalence of aplastic anemia within this group of children. This prevalence was then examined in relation to their age, gender, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Results: The patient group had a mean age of 6.74 years, primarily consisting of children aged 1-10 years (86.4%). Gender distribution was fairly balanced, with 55.2% males and 44.8% females. Most patients belonged to the middle class (48.8%), followed by the lower class (35.2%) and high class (16.0%). Pallor was the most common, with 86.36% of patients experiencing it. Fever and bruises/purpura were also frequent, affecting 64.55% and 59.55% of patients, respectively. Aplastic anemia was observed in 33.60% of the children, while 66.4% did not have this condition. Conclusion: In children who had recently developed pancytopenia, the incidence of aplastic anemia was determined to be 33.60%. Interestingly, no noteworthy disparities in the occurrence of aplastic anemia were observed with regard to age, gender, or socioeconomic status.