Frequency and Patterns of Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (Clubfoot) Deformity in Children
Background: Clubfoot, also known as congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), is a structural deformity that appears early in pregnancy. Objective: To determine the frequency and patterns of congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) deformity in children. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Settings: Department of Anatomy Dow International Medical College, DUHS Karachi Pakistan. Duration: October 2022 to March 2023. Methods: We initiated a prospective study that aimed to investigate congenital anomalies among neonates. We systematically documented the patterns of clubfoot concerning factors such as gender, the affected side, any coexisting congenital anomalies and maternal demographic details as part of our comprehensive analysis. Results: The number of children with clubfoot deformity recorded during the study period was 125 out of total number of all births at hospital during this period. This gave an estimated clubfoot incidence of 1 in 500 per number of births or 2 per 1000 births. Most patients were infants, with 50.4% aged less than 6 months, while 27.2% were between 6 months and 1 year old, and 22.4% were over 1 year old. Gender distribution showed that 56% were male, and 44% were female. Among the patients, 40% had CTEV on the right side, 20% on the left, and an equal number, 40%, had it bilaterally. The majority, 96%, had isolated CTEV, while a smaller percentage, 4%, had CTEV associated with other medical conditions. Conclusion: The occurrence of clubfoot is higher in males than in females. An equal number of cases presented with bilateral and unilateral clubfoot. Notably, the mode of delivery and a positive family history were found to have significant associations with clubfoot. These initial findings are expected to contribute to future studies in both central India and the broader Pakistani population that focus on similar issues.