Prevalence of Various Malocclusions Among Patients Presenting at Dental OPD of a Tertiary Care Hospital
Background: Malocclusion refers to the misalignment or improper positioning of teeth when the jaws are closed. It can affect an individual's oral health, aesthetics, and overall quality of life. Identifying the prevalence of malocclusion is crucial for dental professionals to diagnose and plan appropriate treatments. Each case of malocclusion is unique, and understanding the frequency of different malocclusion types helps in tailoring treatment strategies. Objective: To find out the prevalence of malocclusion among patients reporting at Dental OPD of Liaquat University Hospital (LUH), Hyderabad. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Settings: Dental OPD of Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad Pakistan. Duration: From April-2022 to May 2022. Methods: Patients with age range of 25 to 35 years presence with all permanent teeth with or without 3rd molar were included. The oral cavity of participants was examined using examination instruments. Patients were asked to close their mouth in centric occlusion by the saliva deglutition method. The records were collected first by the presence of dental malocclusion or not and further as per Angle’s Classification of malocclusion and then further they their relationship was correlated with vertical plane. After data collection, the whole data was analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics 28.0. Results: This study involving 267 patients, and results showed 79.8% of the patients had a dental malocclusion. Class I malocclusion was the most common, accounting for 59.6%, class II malocclusion was 12.4% and Class III malocclusion was found in 7.9% cases. In the overall population, 62.2% of cases exhibited a normal vertical overlap of teeth, while 27.7% had a deep bite, 9% had an open bite, and there were very few cases of crossbite and edge-to-edge bite. Further analysis within the different malocclusion classes revealed variations in vertical patterns. In Class I malocclusion, 64.3% of cases had a normal deep bite, 25.8% had a deep bite, 8.9% had an open bite, and a minimal 0.9% had an edge-to-edge bite. In Class II malocclusion, 51.5% had a normal bite, 45.5% had a deep bite, and 3% had an open bite. Class III malocclusion had 57.1% of cases with a normal bite, 19% with deep bite, 19% with open bite, and 4.8% with crossbite. Conclusion: Dental malocclusion was observed to be highly prevalent, with Class I malocclusion being the most common type among patients presenting at the dental OPD. Additionally, a significant portion of the population had deep bites or open bites, which can have implications for both oral health and aesthetics.