Efficacy of Lactobacillus Acidophilus DDS-1, Lactobacillus Bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium Infantis in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Neonates
Objectives: To compare the efficacy of combination of lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1, lactobacillus bulgaricus, bifidobacterium infantis in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates with placebo. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Duration of Study: May 2012 to October 2012. Setting: Department of Pediatric Medicine, Allied Hospital, Faisalabad. Methodology: Over 6 months, 220 preterm neonates meeting the inclusion criteria were selected and were assigned randomly to two groups after parental informed consent was obtained. The neonates in study group received probiotic with breast milk or preterm formula milk and neonates in control group received breast milk or preterm formula milk. Both groups were observed for the development of clinical evidence of NEC. The Data was statistically analyzed; Chi square test and Fischer’s exact test was applied to compare both groups for presence of NEC. Results: The number of days required to reach full enteral feeding (study group 8.73±3.87 days vs control group 10.72±5.43 days; p-value 0.002) and duration of hospital stay was (study group 11.35±6.74 vs control group 15.35±10.29; p-value 0.001) significantly low in the probiotic-exposed group compared with the control. The incidence of NEC (study group 10.0% vs control group 22.72%; p-value 0.011) was significantly low in the probiotic-exposed group when compared with non-exposed group. Conclusion: Alteration of microbial florae following oral supplementation of probiotics along with human milk have beneficial effects in reducing the incidence of NEC especially in pre-term neonates.