Incident of Thyroid Carcinomas and Other Pathologies with Age Correlation in Patients Presented with Palpable Thyroid Masses Undergoing Thyroidectomies
Background: Thyroid cancer is the leading cause of death both in developing and developed countries. Patients present with enlarged thyroid. Radiology shows hot and cold nodules. Thyroidectomy or lobectomy is done to rule out malignancy. Objective: To determine the incidence of thyroid carcinomas and other pathologies in thyroidectomy specimen of different age group patients presenting with clinically enlarged thyroid. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Settings: Department of Histopathology, Foundation University Medical College (FUMC), Islamabad and Department of surgery, Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH), Rawalpindi Pakistan. Duration: from Jan 2012 to March 2019. Methodology: All the thyroidectomies specimens send from Surgery department of FFH to Histopathology Department of FUMC during study period and fulfilling the pre-set criteria were included in the study. All the data and results were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results: Out of 500 total patients, 89% (n=445) were diagnosed as having multinodular goiter, 2.6% (n=13) thyroiditis, 2.2% (n=11) follicular adenoma, 0.8% (n=4) Hurthle cell adenoma, 0.2%(n=1) hyalinizing trabacular adenoma and thyroid carcinomas. The carcinomas comprised 2.6%(n=13) papillary carcinoma, 0.8%(n=4) poorly differentiated carcinoma,0.8%(n=4) anaplastic carcinoma,0.6%(n=3) medullary carcinoma and 0.4%(n=2) follicular carcinoma. In 445 patients of multinodular goiter 158 patients were in the age range of 41-50 years, in 13 cases of thyroiditis 7 were in the age range of 31-40 years, in 11 cases of follicular adenoma 4 patients were in the age range of 31-40 years, in 4 cases of hurthle cell adenoma 3 patients were in the age range of 41-50 years, in 13 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma 5 patients were in the age range of 31-40 years, in 4 cases of poorly differentiated carcinoma 2 patients were in the age range of 41-50 years and in 4 cases of anaplastic carcinoma 2 patients were in the age range of 61-70 years. Conclusion: The study concluded that thyroid carcinomas collectively constituted 5.20% of the study cases. Papillary carcinoma was the most frequent malignant neoplasm constituting 2.6 % and occurring mostly in the age range of 31-40 years, while anaplastic carcinoma comprised of 0.8% of malignant lesions occurring in the age range of 61-70 years. The most frequent cause of thyroid enlargement was multinodular goiter (89%) with majority of the patients in the age range of 41-50 years.