Prevalence of Depression among the Patients with End Stage Renal Disease and their Care Givers, and its Associated Factors at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi
Objectives: The aim of our study is to determine the prevalence of depression among the patients with end stage renal disease and their care givers, and its associated factors at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi Pakistan. Methodology: The type of study is a cross sectional study, conducted for a period of 6 months from June 2015 to November 2015, at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. The study population consisted of n= 400 individuals (n=200 patients, n=200 attendants). Beck’s Depression Inventory questionnaire was employed to the study participants. Various factors such as gender, education level, employment and marital status, and various co morbidities were studied for their association with depression. Results: The prevalence of severe and moderate depression among the patients undergoing dialysis was 72.5%, and it was 35% among the caregivers having a p value of less than 0.001. The patients at the highest risk of depression were married, unemployed and with an income of less than Rs. 5000/-. The factors that had a positive association with depression were marital status (p value of less than 0.001), employment status (p value 0.01) low level of income (p value of 0.061), females (p value of 0.045), level of education below grade 10 (p value of 0.045). Anemia showed an association with depression (p value of 0.023). Conclusion: According to the results of our study a significant number of patients who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were depressed, and were two times likely to be depressed when compared to their care givers. Marriage and unemployment were the factors most associated with symptoms of depression. Household income showed a negative relation, but gender and education level were found to be not related to the incidence of depression.